This is primarily geared at interest-based advertising, but can also be used to limit (in some capacity) what data is being shared among other parties (in a singular way).
The Self-Regulatory Program for Online Behavioral Advertising program provides consumers with the ability to opt-out of having their online behavior recorded and used for advertising purposes, generally speaking. To change your preferences, go to their site: http://www.aboutads.info/choices/ and you’ll be able to opt-out from certain companies.
If you want to opt-out of Google’s interest based ads, you’ll have to install a web browser extension.
To opt-out or block Google Analytics Tracking in Chrome, you can install the following extension: https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/google-analytics-opt-out/fllaojicojecljbmefodhfapmkghcbnh